Robert Hooke used a microscope he invented to look at cells in 1665.
He made a single lens magnifier (up to 270x magnification) and
looked to animalcules in drops of rainwater, scrapings from his
teeth and in his semen.
Resolving power is the ability to distinguish between two points.
Around 0.2µm or 200nm.
The amount that a cell is increased in size.
Magnification = image size/object size
50x (5 x 50)
Both units should be in µm
Multiply by 1000
Divide by 1000
Multiply by 10000
Divide by 10000
A coloured dye that is used on cells so that they can be seen under
The circular image that appears under a microscope: all that is
Pea plant, maize plant
Eukaryotic cells have their DNA inside of a nucleus, prokaryotic
cells have DNA, but have no nucleus.
Controls movement of substances into and out of a cell. Selectively
Controls the cell and holds the genetic information within the cell.
Site of chemical reactions.
Creates energy during respiration.
Holds water and cell sap.
Provides support and allows substances into and out of the cell.
Creates glucose from photosynthesis. Absorbs light energy.
Small rings of DNA containing genetic information of bacteria.
Genes could give advantages such as antibiotic resistance.
Used in genetic engineering.
A loop of DNA containing genetic information of bacteria.
Allow the bacterial cell to squeeze into small places. Sometimes can
be made of slime.
Lactobacillus bulgaricus (used to make yoghurt),
pneumococcus (causes pneumonia),
salmonella (causes food poisoning)
Rub the inside of your cheek with a cotton swab, rotating it to
Rub the cotton swab onto a glass slide.
Place a drop of methylene blue stain onto the sample.
Lower the coverslip at an angle onto the slide to prevent air
Place under a microscope and focus the image.
Nerve cells, skin cells, muscle cells, retina cells, bone cells (any
two cell types)
Large insoluble molecules of food into smaller soluble molecules of
Carbohydrases such as amylase or maltase
Proteases like pepsin and trypsin
Polypeptides and amino acids
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